Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.
Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process.
Among humans and other mammals, males typically carry XY chromosomes, whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system.
This double-chromosome stage is called "diploid", while the single-chromosome stage is "haploid".
Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells (gametes) that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.
In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes (e.g.
the malaria parasite) also engage in sexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy).As sexual reproduction developed by way of a long process of evolution, intermediates exist.Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual (donor) is transferred to an other (recipient).For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes.One of the basic properties of life is reproduction, the capacity to generate new individuals, and sex is an aspect of this process.Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.